Planning and DesignPlanning and design
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, referred to as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is a public welfare institution organized by the government to implement national-level disease prevention and control and public health technology management and services. There are many CDC laboratories, all types of laboratories are concentrated, and they are divided into districts. The construction of CDC laboratories must comprehensively consider multiple factors and make overall planning. Guangdong Renfeng Industrial Co. , Ltd. is currently one of the few domestic laboratory solution providers. The company has a professional design team, a nationwide construction team, and highly competitive laboratory furniture products.
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The laboratory of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shall comply with the overall urban construction plan, and its location shall meet the following requirements:
1. Make full use of urban infrastructure;
2. The terrain is regular and the traffic is convenient;
3. Avoid drinking water source protection areas;
4. Avoid chemical, biological, noise, vibration, strong electromagnetic fields and other sources of pollution and flammable and explosive places.
Key points and suggestions for laboratory process design of CDC:
1. Qualification requirements
At present, there is no special qualification for the design of disease control laboratories. Generally, design units with qualifications in purification engineering, electronic engineering or architectural decoration engineering are selected. The design party should have all the professional laboratory design capabilities and performance of disease control, and its design level. It should be able to carry out the design according to the requirements of the construction party and ensure compliance with the relevant requirements.
2.Clear height and floor room layout
Reasonable building height and net height are closely related to building energy consumption, toxic and harmful gas diffusion, and personnel comfort. After the building height is determined, the technical mezzanine should be moved up as much as possible to ensure that the net height is different from pressure differential and purification experiments. The clear height of the room should be 2.5-2.7m, and the clear height of the other laboratories should be 2.7-3.0m. The clear height must be marked on the design drawings.
The reasonable layout of floors and rooms is very important. The laboratory buildings should be arranged from the bottom up in accordance with clinical inspection, microbes, physicochemicals, disease vectors or toxicology in order to properly set up the engineering pipeline network, which is beneficial to the discharge of toxic and harmful gases. The rooms on the floor should be set up according to the relevant construction requirements and divided into categories and units. The designer should repeatedly communicate with professionals to discuss the room layout plan, and ask experts to prove the final draft.
3.Module, depth and corridor width
The opening modulus of the laboratory should be 3.5-4.0 m, and the depth should be 6.0-9.0 m, which can meet the requirements of various laboratories for disease control. The chemical analysis center laboratory has a central stage and side tables on both sides. The number can be multiplied by 7-8m. Side doors on both sides are connected to auxiliary rooms such as pure water preparation room, sample processing room or conventional instrument room, forming a work unit for easy operation.
The width of the corridor is recommended to be 1.6-2.0m in the construction standards. The author believes that if the width of 2.0m is depressed and it is not conducive to the transportation of large equipment, the recommended width is 2.0-2.2m.
CDC design plan
4.Partition walls, floors and ceilings
Partition wall materials should meet the requirements of fire safety and biological safety, and rooms with hidden fire hazards, such as gas cylinder rooms, chemical reagent rooms, sample processing rooms, and autoclave rooms, should be equipped with solid walls, and the remaining partitions should be made of lightweight materials.
Due to the requirements of biosafety laboratories, which are easy to clean, impervious to water, and resistant to chemicals and disinfectants, the author recommends that the remaining laboratories use manual rock wool double glass magnesium cored color steel plates, single glass magnesium cored color steel plates or handmade rock wool. Sandwiched color steel is preferred, followed by aluminum partitions and glass partitions.
The laboratory floor should be made of corrosion-resistant, wear-resistant, easy-to-wash building materials, chemical and microbial disinfection rooms, and wear-resistant floor tiles should be used. The remaining laboratories can use PVC coils, rubber floors, and epoxy flooring.
All laboratories involving biosafety, constant temperature and humidity, purification and differential pressure should use manual rock wool double glass magnesium core color steel plate ceilings, and other rooms can use mineral wool boards, aluminum gussets and other ceiling materials.
5, doors and windows and observation windows
The doors and windows of the laboratory should meet the needs of large-scale equipment handling, visualization, ventilation, and safety. All rooms with large equipment should be set as child-mother doors. Observation windows should be set on the doors. The width of ordinary laboratory doors should be 1.1 meters to 1.2 meters. Symmetrical double-opening is suitable. Laboratories with buffer rooms, including sterile rooms, clean laboratories, and biosafety laboratories, should be used in complex experimental rooms.
Concealed equipment doors are reserved for the entry and exit of experimental equipment, especially large equipment. Doors of rooms with hidden safety hazards should be opened outside for timely escape. Except for the windows of rooms with purification, differential pressure, constant temperature and humidity, and sterility requirements, the windows of other rooms should be opened as far as possible to facilitate ventilation.
In order to facilitate customer visits and experimental observations, observation windows should be reasonably arranged on both sides of the laboratory corridor and in each work unit room. The height, position and size of the observation windows should be uniform. Tempered glass should be used for the observation window material.
The structure of the test bench should be steel and wood. Its common dimensions are 750mm in width and 820mm in height. The length is determined according to the actual conditions of the room. However, large equipment such as ICP-AES should increase the width, and it is recommended to use 850-900mm. Board, but the incubator platform, sky platform, centrifuge table should be made of marble material, set the power socket slot, or group, near the wall of the experimental table, with power air switch to facilitate the use of laboratory personnel.
General power and experimental power must be separated. The laboratory power supply should have sufficient load margin. When designing the total power supply, it should be estimated based on more than 2 times the current total load of the equipment. For the safe storage of bacterial poisons, reagents and emergency detection, Generally, dual-channel power supply is used. A self-supplied power supply can be equipped next to the main power distribution room. It is best to have a backup generator set to ensure the safe use of equipment and reagents. To facilitate the lead and troubleshooting.
There are two kinds of common gas supply methods: centralized and decentralized. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. The author recommends using an explosion-proof gas cylinder cabinet with an automatic alarm and installing a ventilation device in the cylinder room. Its safety can be guaranteed.
Due to the existence of large-scale precision instruments, chemical reagents, pathogenic microorganisms, negative pressure and cleanliness rooms in some rooms of the laboratory, if it is designed as a pyrotechnic induction alarm fire spraying device according to ordinary fire protection, serious consequences will occur after water is passed, so it is recommended to keep Pyrotechnic induction alarms, cancelling the spraying device, using other reasonable fire extinguishing devices such as fire sand, dry powder fire extinguishers, carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, halogenated fire extinguishers, etc The fire protection design plan must be submitted to the local fire department for review and approval before implementation, otherwise there will be hidden dangers of responsibility.
10. Water supply, pure water supply and wastewater discharge treatment
For experimental buildings whose height exceeds the water pressure range of the urban water supply network, the frequency conversion constant pressure water supply device should be installed in the water supply system. It is recommended that the centralized water supply be used in the clinical inspection and microbiology room. The water point is convenient for use. The physical and chemical analysis has higher requirements for pure water, and it is advisable to adopt a distributed supply method.
Disease control laboratory wastewater is mainly divided into four categories: pathogenic microorganisms, organic solvents, radioactive substances, and more harmful experimental wastewater after mixing. In the design, independent drainage pipes should be set and harmlessly treated before they can be discharged into urban drainage. Pipe Network. Drainage pipes should be selected according to the type of experimental wastewater discharged. PVC pipes should be used for acid and alkali wastewater, and ceramic or cement pipes should be used for wastewater containing organic solvents.
Experimental wastewater treatment methods include chemical, physical, and biological methods, but the components of experimental wastewater from disease control agencies are more complex and generally adopt comprehensive treatment methods. The drawings after design must be approved by the environmental protection department before implementation.