Planning and DesignPlanning and design
The agricultural product quality supervision and testing laboratory can be set up as follows: business sample collection room, sample storage room, sample processing room, reagent storage room, sample detection pre-processing room, instrument analysis room, weighing room, drying room, standard solution Configuration room, sensory analysis room, quality analysis room, microbiological detection room, genetically modified component detection room, food toxicology analysis room, etc. Each part has basic and special requirements:
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Basic requirements for laboratory construction of agricultural product testing centers
First, power distribution
The distribution power must meet the current situation, with a slight surplus. Due to the requirements of digestion, drying, ventilation, purification, etc., agricultural product testing laboratories have a large power consumption, which is much larger than that of general office electricity. It should be configured in a sufficient amount at the time of power configuration, especially in the selection of cables It should be highly equipped, not small carts, so as not to damage expensive analytical instruments and equipment. The full power should be allocated to the electrical equipment at one time. Pay attention to the special requirements of electricity, such as three-phase power, DC power, low-voltage power, etc., must have a good ground. In general, the power allocation of each work room should be 10% power surplus to meet the power demand of new equipment in the future.
Design drawing of agricultural product quality supervision and inspection laboratory
Good laboratory ventilation is the top priority in laboratory construction. The quality of the ventilation is directly related to the health of the test personnel, the efficiency of the use of instruments and equipment, and the pollution of the surrounding environment. Laboratory ventilation should be exhausted thoroughly, organic and inorganic separation. Agricultural product testing laboratories require more ventilation due to the use of more toxic chemicals. Laboratory ventilation is mainly required for exhaust air. The laboratory should have sufficient exhaust facilities. Separate exhaust facilities for organic evaporation and inorganic digestion. Avoid flammable and explosive organic reagents and strong oxidizing inorganic reagents during the exhaust process. Explosion of the mixture. At the same time, different materials should be used for organic and inorganic exhaust ducts to reduce reagent corrosion and increase service life.
The design of the exhaust duct should be as short as possible to reduce the dead angle. A check valve should be installed above each exhaust facility to prevent secondary contamination caused by reagent condensation and backflow and gas flow between exhaust facilities. Exhaust ducts should be enlarged due to the requirements of exhaust volume and noise control, especially the main ducts. The design of the surface wind speed of the exhaust facilities in the laboratory should not be less than 0.5m / s, and the maximum can reach 0.8m / s ～ 1.0m / s. Environmentally friendly equipment should be added to the exhaust vents where conditions permit, so that the toxic and harmful gases discharged from the laboratory can meet environmental protection requirements.
Third, fire protection, spraying and water supply and drainage
Fire protection, sprinkler and water supply and drainage are part of the building infrastructure. They have been installed in place before the second renovation of the laboratory, and the fire protection facilities require legal acceptance. The modification procedure is very complicated. Therefore, in the design stage, different functional areas and functional areas should be drawn Special requirements in terms of fire protection, spraying, water supply and drainage, etc., such as water in the instrument room, eyewash in the pre-processing room, spraying, water, etc. should be set in advance, and the position should be fixed to avoid inappropriate or missing positions during use It is very difficult to change or add. Laboratory fire protection should meet the general fire protection requirements. Fire sprinklers and fire sands cannot be used in the instrument room. It is also best not to use fire sprinklers in clean areas to avoid damage to valuable instruments and clean rooms when accidental spraying occurs. Other fire protection methods can be used, such as Use of flame retardant materials, solid fire extinguishers, etc.
Special requirements for laboratory construction of agricultural product testing centers
First, clean area
The complexity of agricultural product testing laboratories lies in not only physical and chemical testing rooms, sensory analysis rooms, quality analysis rooms, but also food hygiene microbiology testing rooms, molecular biology testing rooms, genetically modified component testing rooms, and even food toxicology analysis rooms. There are high requirements on cleanliness to prevent pollution caused by the environment and between samples. The above laboratories should be built at the two ends of the building or be self-contained to reduce the pollution caused by people moving around. Its construction should meet the requirements of the Code for the Construction of Clean Rooms, the Code for the Design of Biosafety Labs, and the Code for the Design of Genetically Modified Labs.
Air and ground
The instrument analysis room should have independent gas and ground lines. Some modern analytical instruments require gas supply to work. In the laboratory construction, it is necessary to set up a good gas path. The gas path should be mainly copper pipes, which is beautiful, practical and safe. Agricultural product detection and analysis instruments require a good ground to prevent electromagnetic interference and safety in use. The ground of the instrument is different from the ground of the building and should be set up separately. It should be buried in advance during the construction of the laboratory.
Access Control and Network
As a professional testing agency, agricultural product testing laboratories should set up an independent access control system in addition to the business sample collection room to prevent personnel movement from adversely affecting the test results. With the improvement of the management methods of the testing laboratory, the operation of the laboratory information management system requires the laboratory to carry out network wiring during the construction process, and the internal network and external network are separated. The internal network interface should be reserved behind each networked instrument. Used when preparing the information system.
Fourth, personnel protection system
Modern testing laboratories focus on personnel protection. In addition to requiring laboratories to comply with active protective measures such as good operating practices, the laboratory must also set up passive protective measures such as emergency eye washers, emergency sprinklers, emergency lighting alarm facilities, and disinfection toilet facilities, etc. It should be placed in the most convenient and conspicuous position to ensure that it is ready for use.
V. Environmental conditions
The testing work requires strict environmental conditions such as the instrument analysis room, weighing room, standard solution preparation room, etc., not only temperature and humidity control, but also to prevent the influence of air flow interference, vibration, dust, etc., so the above work room should be buffered In addition, temperature and humidity control facilities are added to provide good environmental conditions for scientific and accurate detection.
In the process of building an agricultural product testing laboratory, not only good instrument conditions and good test operators, but also good work layout and good environmental conditions. In the design phase of the laboratory, it should be designed in accordance with the requirements of the laboratory, advanced design, unified planning, and in accordance with the specific conditions of each unit, the structural layout and equipment placement should be designed in advance. Project supervisors, design and construction units shall fully solicit the opinions of users, in terms of power load, ventilation requirements, hydropower locations, isolation buffers, purification areas, access control systems, protection systems, network pipeline layout, etc., according to the order of construction, Reasonable division of labor, scientific arrangements, and strive for a design and construction in place, to avoid the unfavorable situation of demolition, demolition and rebuilding, or even the inability to work, improve the design and construction level of China ’s agricultural product testing laboratories, and improve the quality and safety of agricultural products in China Provide stronger technical guarantee.