Planning and DesignPlanning and design
The development of clean rooms is closely linked with modern industry and cutting-edge technology. Clean room laboratory design , laboratory planning , and laboratory construction are particularly important. Due to the environmental requirements of the precision machinery industry (such as processing of gyroscopes, miniature bearings, etc.) and the semiconductor industry (such as large-scale integrated circuit production), the development of clean room technology has been promoted. Domestic statistics have shown that the qualification rate of producing MOS circuit dies in an environment without a clean level requirement is only 10% to 15%, and 64 is only 2% of the memory. At present, the application of clean rooms in precision machinery, semiconductor, aerospace, atomic energy and other industries has become quite common.
1.1 Choice of Clean Lab Location and Environment
The location selection of clean laboratories should comply with the design requirements of cleanliness. Areas and locations with low atmospheric dust concentration and good natural environment should be selected, and away from places with fallen leaves and air odors (such as riverside, around canteens, Dynamic area, etc.), but also try to avoid the area of vibration or noise interference.
When selecting the location, terrain, and environment around the laboratory, you must analyze and weigh the allowable environmental vibration values of precision equipment, precision instruments, and meters.
1.2 Standards for Wall Enclosures of Clean Labs
The sources of pollution in clean laboratories are mainly dust, bacteria, dust particles and microorganisms in the atmosphere, as well as dust from laboratory personnel, dust generation during experimental equipment and experimental operations. Therefore, the quality of building envelopes and building construction methods are of great significance for maintaining and improving the standards of clean laboratories.
The external protective structure of the clean laboratory, such as doors and windows, wall panels, ceiling panels, high-efficiency filters, electrical appliances, etc., must fully consider its requirements for good thermal insulation, heat insulation, fire prevention, moisture resistance, and airtight performance, so as not to produce dust, It has no cracks, can be scrubbed, and is resistant to moisture. The seams are flush and sealed, and the flat seams have small straight seams. The ground strives to be abrasion-resistant, impact-resistant, fire-resistant, and erosion-resistant. It is not easy to generate static electricity and the surface is not easy to attach dust particles.
1.3 Overall layout design of clean laboratory
For the plan and space design of the clean laboratory, the clean experimental area and personnel purification, equipment and material purification, and other auxiliary rooms should be arranged in zones. At the same time, the comprehensive coordination effects of various technical facilities such as experimental operation, process equipment installation and maintenance, air flow organization type, pipeline layout and purification air conditioning system should be considered.
The layout of various fixed technical facilities (such as air supply vents, illuminators, air return vents, various pipelines, etc.) in the laboratory should first consider the requirements of the purified air conditioning system.
Inspection of clean room air cleanliness level should be based on the number of dust particles tested under dynamic conditions. For the calculation of dust particles larger than or equal to 5 microns in a clean room with a Class 5 air cleanliness, multiple sampling should be performed. When it appears multiple times, the test value can be considered reliable.
When determining the cleanliness level of clean laboratory air, we must first meet the requirements for the air cleanliness of the experimental content and experimental equipment, and then comprehensively consider the different purification level requirements of each experimental area according to the experimental operation steps and experimental program layout, so as to do To meet the purification requirements and save costs.
1.4 Air purification conditioning system in clean laboratory
Under normal circumstances, the control temperature of clean zone 5 and 6 is 20 ℃ ～ 24 ℃, the relative humidity is 45% ～ 65%; the control temperature of clean zone 7 and above 7 is 18 ℃ ～ 28 ℃, and the relative humidity is 50. % To 65%. When there is no special requirement for clean room temperature and humidity, the temperature should be controlled at 18 ℃ ～ 26 ℃, and the relative humidity should be controlled at 45% ～ 65%.
In addition, the air flow speed, supply air volume and fresh air volume must meet the requirements of the clean room experimental facilities and personnel. Because the purification laboratory is a relatively independent and closed space, while maintaining the temperature, humidity, and air flow rate, measures must be taken to compensate for the amount of fresh air required for indoor exhaust and to maintain a positive (or negative) value.
With the continuous improvement of cleanliness requirements, ultra-high-efficiency filters are also required. Then the air treatment units are also required to be equipped with at least primary, intermediate, and sub-high-efficiency filter systems. This requires higher unit strength and higher air quality. The head of the blower of the processing unit will be larger, and for the biological clean laboratory, the bacteria content is also one of the main control parameters. Generally, a filter should be added to the air purification treatment method, which can not only effectively filter the dust in the air, It can also block the spread and spread of bacteria and viruses in air conditioning systems, especially high-efficiency filters. The capture efficiency of viruses and bacteria floating in the atmosphere can actually reach 100%. Filters that can effectively prevent the growth of bacteria in the filters can also be used. Device. Such as the filter containing antibacterial agent INTESEPT, titanium dioxide filter, etc., the filter should be replaced regularly.
Clean room use:
1. Air clean room: A clean room (facility) that has been constructed and can be put into use. It has all the relevant services and functions. However, there is no equipment operated by the operator in the facility.
2. Static clean room: Various functions are complete and the settings are properly installed. The clean room (facility) can be used or in use according to the settings, but there are no operators in the facility.
3. Dynamic clean room: It is in a clean room in normal use, with perfect service functions, equipment and personnel; if necessary, it can engage in normal work.
Clean room classification:
Clean laboratories are divided into general clean laboratories and biosafety laboratories.
Biosafety laboratories are biological laboratories with primary protection facilities that can achieve secondary protection. Biosafety laboratories are required for scientific experiments in the fields of microbiology, biomedicine, functional experiments, and genetic recombination. The core of the biosafety laboratory is safety, which is divided into four levels of P1, P2, P3, and P4 according to the degree of biological danger.
The P1 laboratory is suitable for very familiar disease sources, which do not often cause healthy adult diseases, and have little potential danger to laboratory personnel and the environment. The door should be closed during the experiment, and the operation should be performed according to the ordinary microorganism experiment;
P2 laboratories are suitable for pathogens with moderate potential danger to humans and the environment. Restrict access to the experimental area. Experiments in which aerosols may occur should be performed in a Class II biological safety cabinet, and an autoclave should be provided;
P3 laboratories are used in clinical, diagnostic, teaching, or production facilities. At this level, work is performed on endogenous and exogenous pathogens. If exposed and inhaled, they can cause serious and potentially fatal diseases. The laboratory has a double door or air lock room and an externally isolated experimental area. It is forbidden for non-workers to enter the laboratory. The laboratory is under negative pressure. Experiments are performed using a class II biological safety cabinet. The indoor air is filtered by high-efficiency filters Go outdoors
P4 laboratories are more stringent than P3 laboratories. Some dangerous exogenous pathogens have a high individual risk of laboratory infections and life-threatening diseases caused by aerosol transmission. Related work should be carried out in P4 laboratories. Adopt the structure of independent building internal isolation area and external partition, maintain negative pressure in the room, use class III biological safety cabinet for experiments, set up air blocking device, shower room, operating staff should wear protective clothing, non-workers are prohibited enter. The core of the design of the biosafety laboratory is dynamic isolation. The ventilation measures are the focus. It emphasizes on-site disinfection, attaches importance to clean and shunt shunts, prevents accidental spread, and requires appropriate cleanliness.
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