Planning and DesignPlanning and design
Animal room laboratory construction refers to the planning and design of buildings suitable for breeding and breeding experimental animals. Such buildings should have specific environmental requirements and experimental methods to ensure the quality of animals and the accuracy and reliability of experimental research. According to the degree of control of microorganisms, it can be divided into: open systems, barrier systems and isolation systems.
Animal room classification:
Secondary Clean Animal (CL)
It is required to exclude pathogens of zoonotic diseases and major infectious diseases of animals.
Tertiary Special Pathogen-Free Animal (SPF)
In addition to the requirements of Level 2, some specified pathogens must be excluded. The methods for sterilization and sterilization include high-efficiency air filter sterilization method, ultraviolet sterilization method, triethylene glycol vapor spray method, and lithium chloride aqueous solution spray method.
Grade IV sterile animals (GF) or biotic animals (GN).
Sterile animals are required to be free of any microorganisms detectable by existing methods. Living animals require the implantation of one or more known microorganisms on a sterile animal.
In pathological examination, the four types of animal laboratories also have different pathological examination standards.
The first-level appearance is healthy, and the main organs should not have lesions.
In addition to the first-level indicators, no secondary microbial pathogenic lesions were detected by microscopy.
Tertiary animal without special pathogens. No secondary or tertiary microbial pathogens.
Grade 4 does not contain secondary or tertiary microbial pathogenic lesions, and the spleen and lymph nodes are sterile animal histological structures.
Requirements for different levels of animal laboratory planning:
The laboratory animal room is generally composed of a breeding room, a health observation room, an isolation and quarantine room, and various laboratories (surgery, experimental treatment anatomy, postoperative management, disease diagnosis, treatment, physiological and biochemical inspection, microbial quarantine, feed nutrition analysis, and special feed Preparation room, etc.), as well as storage room, cleaning preparation room, washing and disinfection room, staff room (including office, shower room, changing room, etc.), corridor (cleaning area and contaminated area), waste treatment facilities, machine room and Substations and other components.
Its plane layout should make the flow of people, animals and objects reasonable, and the operation is convenient.
Strictly distinguish between clean areas and contaminated areas to ensure the health of humans and animals and the accuracy of experiments (see the flow path of people, animals and objects). The plane size of the breeding room is determined by comprehensive research based on the amount of breeding, breeding methods, cage specifications, arrangement, indoor environment, breeding management and operation methods. In order to avoid temperature and humidity gradients in the vertical direction, the height of the cage should not exceed 1.8 meters, and the ceiling height should be in the range of 2.2 to 3 meters. The width of the corridor should be easy to handle and handle materials and equipment, and it should be no less than 1.3 meters. The size of the cleaning preparation room must be determined according to the operation content and the space occupied by facilities such as the disinfection and sterilization device.
The cleaning preparation room and cleaning corridor are separated from the washing room by walls, and cracks must not be allowed on the walls. The ground should be flat and not slippery, without seepage, water leakage, corrosion resistance and wear resistance. For rooms with strict environmental requirements, we also need to consider selecting materials with low dust generation. The corners of the wall and the ground shall be smooth without edges.
The inner wall should be smooth, water-resistant, abrasion-resistant, and resistant to disinfectant corrosion. The angle between the wall and the wall, the wall and the ceiling or beam should be smooth without edges. The ceiling generally does not withstand pressure, and uses a thin cement board coated with a waterproof material, which can withstand water flushing and disinfection water corrosion. Feeding rooms usually do not have external windows, and there are no internal windows between feeding rooms to avoid interference. The door of the breeding room should be an aluminum alloy sealed door. The opening direction must pay attention to the indoor and outdoor pressure difference. Doors between barriers and non-barriers shall be provided with devices that cannot be opened unless they meet certain conditions.
Animal room laboratory construction equipment requirements:
1. Air conditioning and air purification equipment.
The air-conditioning and air purification system of the animal room should be designed in a centralized manner. The machine room is generally arranged on the ground floor and the top floor of the building. The temperature and humidity control in the animal room is realized by the air-conditioning unit. The ordinary animal room only performs general dust removal and filtering on the air, but the barrier system and isolation system have extremely strict air purification requirements. The requirements and methods for air purification treatment of various animal rooms are shown in the table.
2. The air-conditioning system must be operated for many years, otherwise it will bring catastrophic consequences. Therefore, a spare air-conditioning unit must be provided.
3. Water supply and drainage equipment. The water used must not be lower than the cleaning standard specified for tap water. All water in the barrier area should be disinfected and filtered. Drinking water and water are disinfected with different disinfectant solutions. Animal drinking water in the isolation system shall be provided with an independent drinking water device. The waste water of the animal room must have a uniform sewage system and be removed after treatment.
4. Lighting equipment. Animal rooms that are completely illuminated by light use a lighting system of 13 hours of light, 11 hours of darkness, or 12 hours of darkness each. Excessive light is harmful to animals. Therefore, several low-wattage light sources should be installed. Keep low illumination during non-operation time, and supplementary lighting can be turned on during operation observation.
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