common problemCommon problem
In modern experimental research institutions, laboratories are generally classified according to physics, general chemistry, organic synthetic chemistry, and biology, and balance rooms, precision instrument rooms, high-temperature rooms, standard sample rooms, water-making rooms, washing rooms, Processing room, warehouse, etc. In laboratories in the fields of medicine, medicine, food, agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry. A highly reliable, sterile, dust-free environment is essential. In biological laboratories, special requirements for data processing workflows such as inspection, testing, photography, and washing are generally considered, and washing and drying stations can usually be set at the entrance.
Laboratories that use narcotic drugs and precursor drugs must set up special drapes warehouses, iron doors, windows, iron cabinets, and 110 linkage alarm systems.
The laboratory's water supply follows the principle of easy access to nearby places, and hot water systems are set up in necessary places such as washing areas. Drainage should focus on the setting of floor drains and the high temperature resistance requirements of drainage pipes in hot water drainage areas.
The circuit design must consider the size of the overall power, the three-phase electrical requirements, and the requirements of special instrument stability. In order to facilitate operation and meet the requirements of safety management, the laboratory generally requires the setting of independent control switches.
A correct and good grounding system is necessary for the normal, reliable and safe operation of analytical laboratory instruments.
There are two types of gas supply modes: centralized gas supply and single gas supply. In principle, the special gas piping used by the instrument should be as close as possible to the analytical instrument.
5. Ventilation system
Ventilation is an integral part of laboratory design. In order to prevent laboratory staff from inhaling or swallowing some toxic, pathogenic or unknown toxicity chemicals and organisms, the laboratory should be well ventilated. There are two types of ventilation in the laboratory, namely local exhaust and full room ventilation. Local exhaust is exhausted immediately after the production of harmful substances. This method can remove a large amount of harmful substances with less air volume, which is energy-saving and effective. It is a feasible and economical method to improve the current laboratory conditions, and it is also suitable for modern laboratories. The best method of ventilation construction is widely used. For some experiments, local exhaust cannot be used, or when the local exhaust cannot meet the requirements, full room ventilation should be used. Professional ventilation systems such as aseptic systems must be self-contained. The focus of the ventilation system is to determine the location of the air inlet and outlet and the embedding of the air outlet.
6. Safe passage
In the planning and design of the laboratory, the safety channel cannot be ignored, especially the safety distance design in the laboratory interior design.
(1) Security door: as an evacuation route. The door width is 900-1500mm, of which the single door is generally 900film, and the double door is 1200, 1400, 1500 rain, etc.
(2) Safety distance: For the main channel, if the two test benches are operated on both sides, the distance should be ≥1500 mm; on one side, ≥1200mm; if there is a detox cabinet, the distance should be ≥1500mm, and special attention should not be placed on the detox cabinet Near the door.
(3) Aisle distance: The minimum width of a fire passage in a general building is 1200mm, but the laboratory is different. The minimum width should be 1500mm.
Generally, there is no special requirement on the height of the suspended ceiling, but specialties such as aseptic systems have specific requirements on the height of the suspended ceiling and must be paid attention to. At the same time, during the construction of the suspended ceiling, it should be considered simultaneously with the facilities of the ventilation system.
To use different floors for different laboratories, do not use marble floors in the laboratory. At present, the two most commonly used are PVC flooring and anoxic resin flooring, and some use ceramic tiles. In addition to paying attention to the type of the ground, also pay attention to the location of water pipes.
9. Wall surface
Including the position of the pillar, the height of the window sill, the width of the skirting board, etc. must be determined.
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